constructive dismissal explained

Constructive Dismissal in Ontario Explained

In the realm of employment law, constructive dismissal stands as a complex but crucial concept every worker and employer in Ontario should understand. This article aims to demystify constructive dismissal, shedding light on its intricacies and providing actionable advice for navigating these challenging waters.

What is Constructive Dismissal?

Constructive dismissal is a complex legal concept that sits at the intersection of employment rights and employer prerogatives. It occurs under circumstances where an employer implements significant and unilateral changes to the fundamental terms of an employee’s contract—such as job duties, workplace location, working conditions, or compensation—without the employee’s explicit consent. These changes, by their nature, substantially alter the employment agreement’s original framework, leaving the employee feeling that they have no choice but to resign from their position.

Broad Spectrum of Changes

The scope of changes that might constitute constructive dismissal is broad and varies significantly from one case to another. Here are some common scenarios:

  • Salary and Benefits: A substantial reduction in wages or a significant alteration in the benefits package, such as loss of health insurance or pension contributions, without equivalent compensation.
  • Job Role and Responsibilities: Changing an employee’s job duties in a way that either diminishes their role significantly or places them in a position for which they are overqualified or underqualified.
  • Work Location: Requiring an employee to relocate their place of work to a significantly distant location without agreement, especially if the relocation impacts their personal life or incurs additional costs.
  • Work Environment: Creating or allowing a work environment that is hostile, unsafe, or significantly less conducive to the employee’s professional growth or well-being. This may include exposure to harassment, bullying, or other forms of workplace toxicity.

Feeling Pushed Out of Your Job?

If you’re experiencing changes at work that feel unfair, you might not have to face them alone. Achkar Law can help you understand your rights and options.

Legal Framework for Constructive Dismissal in Ontario

Statutory Law: The Employment Standards Act

The Employment Standards Act (ESA) serves as the cornerstone of employment law in Ontario, outlining the minimum standards for most workplaces in the province. While the ESA itself does not explicitly define constructive dismissal, it establishes critical employment terms such as hours of work, minimum wage, leave entitlements, and termination notices. These standards often form the baseline from which any deviations or alterations by the employer are measured to determine if they could be considered constructive dismissal.

For instance, significant reductions in hours or pay that fall below ESA standards without mutual consent might clearly constitute constructive dismissal. However, the ESA also interacts with common law to provide a broader protection scope, acknowledging that constructive dismissal can occur even when statutory minimums are respected but the essence of the employment contract is significantly altered.

Common Law Principles and Judicial Interpretations

Beyond the ESA, common law—principles derived from court decisions—plays a pivotal role in shaping the understanding and application of constructive dismissal in Ontario. Common law offers a more nuanced view of the employment relationship, considering the implied terms and expectations that might not be explicitly stated in the contract.

Key Supreme Court Rulings

  • Farber v. Royal Trust Co.: This landmark case expanded the scope of constructive dismissal by determining that significant unilateral changes to key aspects of an employment contract (e.g., role, responsibilities, location) can constitute constructive dismissal, even if the employee continues to be employed. The ruling emphasized the importance of mutual consent in altering fundamental contract terms.
  • Potter v. New Brunswick Legal Aid Services Commission: This case further refined the understanding of constructive dismissal, introducing a two-part test to determine its occurrence. Firstly, the court assesses whether the employer’s actions amounted to a breach of the employment contract. Secondly, it considers whether a reasonable person in the same situation would have felt that the essential terms of the contract were being substantially changed.

The Role of Reasonableness

A critical aspect of common law’s application to constructive dismissal is the principle of reasonableness. This includes both the employer’s conduct in making changes to the employment terms and the employee’s reaction to those changes. Courts often consider whether the employer acted reasonably in implementing changes (e.g., business necessity, transparency, and fair notice) and whether the employee was reasonable in perceiving those changes as a fundamental breach of the contract.

Identifying Constructive Dismissal

Constructive dismissal arises from changes that significantly impact the employee’s position, remuneration, or work environment without their consent. These changes often undermine the employment contract’s fundamental terms, either explicitly agreed upon or implied as essential components of the job.

Detailed Examination of Monetary and Non-Monetary Changes

Monetary Changes:

  • Salary Reductions: Not just any pay cut qualifies; the reduction must be significant, typically beyond what could be considered a minor or temporary adjustment. For example, a 10% or more decrease in salary might be seen as substantial.
  • Reduction in Working Hours: Similar to salary cuts, a significant reduction in hours that adversely affects the employee’s earnings and was not part of the original employment agreement can constitute constructive dismissal. This might include moving a full-time employee to part-time status without agreement.
  • Alteration in Bonus Structure or Benefits: Changes that significantly affect the overall compensation package, including bonuses, health insurance, retirement benefits, or other perks, can also be considered under this category.
  • Failure to meet minimum standards: Failure to provide Ontario employment standards (e.g., overtime payvacation pay, etc.)

Non-Monetary Changes:

  • Change in Job Role or Responsibilities: This includes being assigned duties that substantially differ from the original job description or are considered a demotion. For instance, a manager being reassigned to a non-supervisory role without justification or consent.
  • Work Location: Requiring an employee to relocate to a significantly distant location or one that fundamentally alters their commute or work-life balance can be seen as constructive dismissal. This is especially relevant if the move violates the terms of the original employment contract or was made without reasonable notice.
  • Deterioration of Working Conditions: This broad category can include a range of scenarios from being moved to a substantially inferior workspace, drastic changes in work hours that conflict with personal obligations, or being isolated from core team activities without justification.
  • Hostile Work Environment: Creating or allowing a work environment that is intimidating, abusive, or otherwise hostile can lead to constructive dismissal. This may encompass harassment, bullying, discrimination, or other behaviors that make it unreasonable for the employee to continue working.

Need Legal Advice Regarding Constructive Dismissal?

Achkar Law specializes in helping both employees and employers understand their rights and obligations under Ontario’s employment laws.

Navigating Constructive Dismissal Challenges

For employees, the first step in addressing potential constructive dismissal is to formally communicate their concerns to their employer, ideally in writing. It’s also crucial to document all changes and communications related to the issue.

Seeking Legal Advice

Consulting with an employment lawyer early can provide crucial insights into the viability of a constructive dismissal claim and the best steps forward. Legal professionals can help navigate the complexities of employment law and advocate on your behalf.

For Employers: Mitigating Risks

Employers can take proactive steps to mitigate the risk of constructive dismissal claims by ensuring clear communication about any necessary changes in employment terms and seeking employee consent where possible. Regular training on employment law standards can also be beneficial.

Compensation and Remedies

In cases where constructive dismissal is proven, employees may be entitled to compensation, typically in the form of notice or severance pay, based on their length of service, age, and the availability of similar employment.

Navigating Constructive Dismissal Challenges

For Employees: Steps to Take

  • Formal Communication: If you suspect you’re experiencing constructive dismissal, start by addressing your concerns formally with your employer. Draft a clear, concise letter or email detailing the changes you’ve observed and how they affect your employment terms. Be specific about any deviations from your original contract or job description and express your concerns about these changes constituting constructive dismissal.
  • Document Everything: Maintain a detailed record of all communications with your employer regarding the issue, as well as notes on any significant changes to your working conditions, job role, salary, or benefits. This documentation should include dates, times, descriptions of conversations, and any responses or actions taken by your employer. Such records can be invaluable if you need to pursue legal action.
  • Seeking Legal Advice: Consulting with an employment lawyer as soon as possible is crucial. An experienced lawyer can assess your situation, advise on the strength of your claim, and guide you through the process of negotiating with your employer or pursuing legal remedies. They can also assist in ensuring that any steps you take, such as rejecting the changes or resigning, are done in a manner that preserves your legal rights.

For Employers: Mitigating Risks

  • Clear and Transparent Communication: Before implementing significant changes that could impact your employees’ terms of employment, communicate these changes clearly and transparently. Provide ample notice, explain the reasons for the changes, and how they will affect employees’ roles, responsibilities, or compensation.
  • Seek Consent: Whenever possible, obtain explicit consent from employees for any changes to their employment terms. This can involve renegotiating aspects of the employment contract or offering incentives for employees to agree to the changes voluntarily.
  • Regular Training and Legal Compliance: Ensure that your Human Resources team and management are well-versed in employment law standards and the implications of constructive dismissal. Regular training sessions can help prevent unintentional breaches of employment contracts and foster a more legally compliant workplace culture.

Compensation and Remedies

  • Understanding Entitlements: In cases where constructive dismissal is established, the law typically entitles employees to compensation. This may include notice pay or severance pay calculated based on the employee’s length of service, age, position, and the likelihood of finding similar employment. The exact entitlements can vary, with common law often providing for more generous compensation than the minimum standards set by the ESA.
  • Negotiating Settlements: Many constructive dismissal cases are resolved through negotiation, resulting in a settlement agreement between the employee and employer. Legal representation can be crucial in these negotiations, ensuring that employees receive fair compensation for the constructive dismissal they experienced.
  • Legal Remedies: If a satisfactory settlement cannot be reached, pursuing legal action may be necessary. This could involve filing a claim with the Ministry of Labour or initiating a lawsuit in civil court. The chosen path will depend on various factors, including the specifics of the case and the potential remedies sought.


Constructive dismissal presents a multifaceted challenge that requires a careful and informed approach. Whether you’re an employee feeling pushed out of your job or an employer navigating changes in your organization, understanding the legal landscape is crucial. By recognizing the signs of constructive dismissal, understanding your rights and obligations, and seeking appropriate legal advice, you can navigate these challenges more effectively.

For personalized legal guidance and support in managing constructive dismissal cases, consider reaching out to employment law professionals. With the right approach and experience, it’s possible to address constructive dismissal issues judiciously and work towards a fair and reasonable resolution.

Need Legal Advice on Constructive Dismissal or Employment Law Issues?

If you’re navigating the complexities of constructive dismissal or facing other employment law challenges, you don’t have to go it alone. Achkar Law is focused on helping both employees and employers understand their rights and obligations under Ontario’s employment laws. Our team of experienced legal professionals is dedicated to providing clear, practical advice and strong representation to ensure your interests are protected.

Why Choose Achkar Law?

  • Personalized Legal Guidance: Every situation is unique, and we believe in tailored solutions that meet your specific needs.
  • Experience in Employment Law: Our focused practice areas mean you benefit from deep knowledge and up-to-date insights into employment law.
  • Proactive and Compassionate Approach: We understand the stress and uncertainty that employment issues can bring. We’re here to offer support and proactive legal strategies to navigate these challenges effectively.

Whether you’re an employee who feels wrongfully dismissed or an employer seeking to navigate workplace changes responsibly, Achkar Law is here to guide you through every step of the legal process.

Don’t Wait, Reach Out Today

Taking early action can be crucial in employment law matters. Contact us today to schedule a consultation and discuss how we can assist you. Let’s work together towards a resolution that safeguards your rights and future.

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At Achkar Law, we’re more than just your legal advisors; we’re your partners in navigating the complexities of employment law. Reach out now to see how we can help.

Need Legal Advice Regarding Constructive Dismissal or Other Employment Law Issues?

Achkar Law specializes in helping both employees and employers understand their rights and obligations under Ontario’s employment laws.