Your Human Rights Complaint article

Building a Strong Human Rights Complaint in Ontario

In Ontario, a commitment to fairness and equality underpins our collective ideals. Yet, individuals still face discrimination, bias, and injustice—particularly in the workplace. Whether you are confronting discrimination from an employer, navigating unfair treatment, or seeking to understand your rights, the first empowering step is filing a human rights complaint.

This article is drafted to walk you through the process of making a human rights complaint in Ontario, aiming to empower you with the knowledge and tools necessary to maximize the effectiveness of your claim. From recognizing when your rights have been violated by an employer to effectively presenting your case with the support of a specialized law firm, we aim to equip you with the confidence to advocate for your rights and pursue the justice you deserve.

By understanding your rights, preparing your case, and engaging with a law firm experienced in human rights complaints, you’re not just addressing personal grievances but contributing to a culture of respect and dignity for all in Ontario.

Understanding Human Rights Violations in Ontario

In Ontario, the dignity and worth of every individual are protected under the Ontario Human Rights Code. This legal framework is designed to provide equal rights and opportunities without discrimination in specific social areas such as employment, housing, and services. Recognizing what constitutes a human rights violation is the first step toward addressing and rectifying such injustices.

Protected Grounds of Discrimination

Human rights violations occur when individuals are discriminated against based on protected grounds. These include, but are not limited to:

  • Age
  • Ancestry, colour, race
  • Citizenship
  • Ethnic origin
  • Place of origin
  • Creed
  • Disability
  • Family status
  • Marital status, including single status
  • Gender identity, gender expression
  • Receipt of public assistance (in housing only)
  • Record of offenses (in employment only)
  • Sex (including pregnancy and breastfeeding)
  • Sexual orientation

Discrimination may manifest in various forms, such as denial of employment opportunities, unequal treatment in the workplace, or refusal of housing, based on any of these protected grounds.

Protected Social Areas

The Ontario Human Rights Code specifies several social areas where the protection against discrimination applies:

  • Employment
  • Housing
  • Goods, services, and facilities
  • Contracts
  • Membership in vocational associations and trade unions

A human rights violation occurs when an individual experiences discrimination within these areas. For example, if an employer denies a job opportunity based on a candidate’s gender identity or if a landlord refuses a tenant based on their race, these actions are considered violations under the Ontario Human Rights Code.

Identifying Discrimination: Recognizing How It Manifests

Discrimination is not always overt and can sometimes be subtle or systemic, making it challenging to identify. Understanding the various ways discrimination can manifest is crucial to recognizing when your rights under the Ontario Human Rights Code might have been violated. This understanding forms the foundation for a compelling human rights complaint.

Direct Discrimination

This is the most straightforward form of discrimination, where an individual is treated less favorably than others because of a protected characteristic. Examples include being denied a job because of your race or being refused service because of your gender identity.

Indirect Discrimination

Indirect discrimination occurs when a seemingly neutral policy, practice, or criterion disproportionately impacts individuals with a protected characteristic. For instance, a workplace dress code that prohibits headwear could indirectly discriminate against individuals who wear head coverings for religious reasons.

Systemic Discrimination

Systemic or institutional discrimination involves policies, practices, or procedures embedded within an organization that result in less favorable treatment of certain groups. This could be a hiring process that inadvertently disadvantages people of a certain age group or a company culture that marginalizes employees with disabilities.


Harassment is a form of discrimination that involves unwanted, derogatory comments or conduct against an individual because of their protected characteristics. It can create a hostile or intimidating environment, such as repeated offensive jokes about someone’s ethnic origin or persistent unwelcome advances.

Constructive Discrimination

Also known as adverse effect discrimination, this occurs when an individual is forced to endure a disadvantage because of a failure to accommodate their protected characteristic to the point of undue hardship. An example would be not making reasonable adjustments for an employee with a disability, thereby preventing their full participation in the workplace.


Retaliation refers to adverse treatment of an individual because they have complained about discrimination or have participated in a process to address discrimination. This could manifest as a demotion, dismissal, or other forms of penalization for bringing a discrimination complaint forward.

Recognizing Discrimination in Action

To effectively identify discrimination, consider the impact of actions, policies, or practices on yourself and others with similar protected characteristics. Reflect on:

  • Has a policy or practice disproportionately impacted you or others based on a protected characteristic?
  • Have you been subject to comments, jokes, or actions that made you feel demeaned or marginalized because of a protected characteristic?
  • Have accommodations been refused or not fully considered, affecting your ability to participate equally in employment, housing, or services?

Preparing a Human Rights Application: Building a Strong Claim

Filing a human rights application requires careful preparation and a clear understanding of what constitutes both a strong and weak claim. A compelling application not only clearly outlines the discrimination you faced but also is supported by relevant evidence and aligns with the Ontario Human Rights Code’s provisions. Here’s how to prepare and differentiate between strong and weak claims.

Supporting Your Claim: Essential Elements

  • Detailed Description of Incidents: Begin by documenting every incident of discrimination, including dates, locations, what was said or done, and who was involved. Specificity is key; vague descriptions are less convincing and harder for tribunals to act upon.
  • Evidence Collection: Gather any evidence that supports your claim. This could include:
    • Emails and Correspondence: Showing discriminatory remarks or decisions.
    • Witness Statements: Accounts from coworkers, friends, or family who observed the incidents.
    • Policies or Documents: Highlighting discriminatory policies or practices within an organization.
    • Medical Records: If applicable, showing how discrimination impacted your mental or physical health.
    • Comparative Evidence: Demonstrating how others outside your protected group were treated differently under similar circumstances.
  • Connection to Protected Grounds: Clearly link the discrimination you experienced to one or more protected grounds under the Ontario Human Rights Code, such as race, gender, disability, etc. A strong claim explicitly demonstrates how these protected characteristics were the basis for unfair treatment.
  • Impact of Discrimination: Describe how the discrimination affected you—emotionally, financially, physically, or in your career progression. The impact underlines the seriousness of the claim and the need for remedy or compensation.

Strong vs. Weak Claims

Strong Claims are characterized by:

  • Clear Evidence: Robust documentation and evidence that corroborate the events and discriminatory behavior.
  • Direct Link to Protected Grounds: Explicit connections between the treatment experienced and the individual’s protected characteristic(s).
  • Significant Impact: Demonstrable adverse effects on the complainant’s life or work, supported by evidence.
  • Consistency: Accounts and evidence that are consistent and corroborated by witnesses or documentation.

Weak Claims often suffer from:

  • Lack of Specific Details: General or vague accusations that do not provide enough information for investigation.
  • Insufficient Evidence: Claims based solely on feelings or perceptions without supporting evidence or documentation.
  • No Direct Link to Protected Grounds: Difficulty in connecting the unfair treatment explicitly to a protected characteristic under the Human Rights Code.
  • Minor or Unsubstantiated Impact: Claims that do not demonstrate a significant impact on the complainant or are not supported by evidence.

Legal Remedies in Human Rights Claims

When you’ve experienced discrimination and decide to file a human rights claim in Ontario, understanding the types of legal remedies available is crucial. These remedies are designed to address the harm caused by the discrimination and to, as much as possible, restore the complainant to the position they would have been in had the discrimination not occurred. Here’s an overview of the types of legal remedies that you might seek in a human rights claim.

Monetary Compensation

  • General Damages for Injury to Dignity, Feelings, and Self-Respect: This is the most common form of remedy, acknowledging the personal hurt and humiliation experienced by the complainant due to discrimination.
  • Lost Wages and Benefits: If the discrimination led to job loss or missed career opportunities, you could be compensated for the income and benefits lost during that period.
  • Out-of-Pocket Expenses: These cover costs incurred as a result of the discrimination, such as medical expenses, costs associated with finding a new job, or other related expenses.

Non-Monetary Remedies

  • Reinstatement: If you were unjustly terminated or demoted, you might seek reinstatement to your former position or an equivalent one.
  • Policy Change: You can request that the respondent (e.g., your employer) change its policies or practices to prevent future discrimination. This might include developing a new anti-discrimination policy or training staff on human rights and diversity.
  • Apology: While it may not carry financial value, an apology can be a significant acknowledgment of the wrongs you’ve endured and can be part of the healing process.

Systemic Remedies

In cases where the discrimination is part of a broader systemic issue within the organization or institution, the tribunal might order remedies that aim to address these wider problems. These can include:

  • Organizational Training: Mandatory human rights training for staff or management to prevent future incidents of discrimination.
  • Monitoring and Reporting: The organization might be required to monitor its practices and report back to the tribunal or a human rights commission to ensure compliance with anti-discrimination policies.

Considerations for Seeking Remedies

  • Be Specific: When preparing your claim, be clear about the remedies you are seeking. This clarity helps the tribunal understand your needs and the impact of the discrimination.
  • Evidence and Documentation: The strength of your claim and the likelihood of obtaining certain remedies are greatly enhanced by the quality and quantity of evidence you provide.
  • Legal Advice: Consulting with a legal professional or a law firm specializing in human rights can provide invaluable guidance on the types of remedies most appropriate to your case and how to effectively argue for them.


Filing a human rights complaint in Ontario is a significant step towards challenging discrimination and advocating for your rights. Through this guide, we’ve outlined the essential steps to prepare and strengthen your complaint, highlighted the importance of understanding the manifestations of discrimination, and discussed the remedies that seek to right the wrongs you’ve faced.

Remember, confronting discrimination is not just about addressing personal grievances; it’s about upholding the values of fairness and equality that define our society. The process may seem daunting, but you are supported by laws designed to protect your rights and by a community of legal professionals ready to assist.

If you believe you’ve been subjected to discrimination, it’s crucial to act. Collect evidence, document your experiences, and consider seeking legal advice to explore your options. Your courage to step forward can not only secure a just outcome for yourself but also contribute to a broader culture of respect and inclusivity.

Your voice matters. If you’re considering filing a human rights complaint, take that step with confidence, knowing that it’s a move towards a more just Ontario for everyone.

Ready to Take Action? Schedule Your Consultation Today

If you’re facing discrimination and thinking about filing a human rights complaint, expert legal guidance can make all the difference. At Achkar Law, we specialize in human rights complaints and are committed to helping you achieve justice.

We understand the complexities of these cases and the emotional toll they can take. That’s why we offer a 60-minute consultation with a human rights lawyer to discuss your situation, understand your needs, and outline how we can support you through the process. Our experienced team is here to provide the expertise and advocacy you need to navigate your claim confidently.

Don’t let uncertainty hold you back. Contact Achkar Law today, and let’s take the first step towards securing the justice you deserve.

Contact Achkar Law Today

Addressing Human Rights Violations in the Workplace

Human rights violations in the workplace can manifest in many forms, impacting the dignity, respect, and well-being of individuals. Whether you are an employer aiming to create a compliant and inclusive work environment or an employee who has experienced discrimination or harassment, understanding your legal rights and obligations is crucial. Achkar Law provides specialized legal support for addressing and resolving human rights issues, ensuring that the workplace is a fair and safe space for everyone. Our approach balances the needs and rights of employers and employees, working towards constructive solutions that uphold human rights standards.